Saturday, March 14, 2020
Consequences of using drugs Essays Consequences of using drugs Essay Consequences of using drugs Essay Consequences of using drugs Many people would ask: why do people use drugs? Or what is the interesting thing about having that vice? Drugs act as poisons, when people have the first time using would begin internal and external situations. Saying that drugs have become the greatest misfortune of society is an exaggerated form of referring to the situation. No one sector of life is free from this outbreak. Crime and violence are obvious consequences, but the lack of morality, education ruined and, of course, ruined lives are less serious and are equally widespread. Inside of health issues we have serious robbers that we need to take control between how it is affected into Problems in main Organs and Withdrawal Symptoms. In main organs we have the heart, when this situation it is not solved in time is possible heart attacks, Also, It may occur problems similar to snuff smoking such as bronchitis and lung infections, and contain many substances that can cause cancer in the lungs. But the problem doesnt stop there; we have the most important thing, the brain and the mind, using drugs affects hardly those things it would be affected into remembering and learning new information every day. When we are talking about withdrawal symptoms, we are referring about lack of main vitamins of the body (C, 81, Magnesium and so on ), people could fall in insomnia, depression, headaches and it is getting worse, addiction. Finally people make disasters when they are eating, almost never they eat something healthy for example: like a plate of beef, rice or plantain they eat more than they usually eat, in this context they get abuse eating 4 or 5 plates of that. Apart from knowing that the problems of drug abuse in the body cause irreversible image, we have the other point of view very highlighted; relationship problems and relations in general. When we talk about relationship problems we refer to a therapeutic level, including education begins at home, which is usually the base and the main thing that can both continue the epidemic of drug abuse and even leave altogether. Among a dysfunctional family where neglect the welfare of each member of them. We found that a family is not communicating or trying to solve the problems in a healthy way, and even lie, steal; because these cases have reached a person gets cake his own life. On the other hand, the person who comes to drug abuse, you can even experiment with drugs more deadly and dangerous than was previously using, for this situation to relate the more people who use other drugs, this would be the beginning of the end of a person who is totally unknown and unconscious. In general appearance, people usually become dependent on drugs tend to change the friendships they had to others who possess drugs. There is an interesting aspect to healthy friendships change the friends who kill, because for a moment it may seem hat everything is fine, when in fact the person regains if he realizes that is lost or perhaps worse, the person feels completely alone and rest is as unique option to repeat events with drugs again and again, until death. Drugs for a moment can relax or rather cure suffering because actually drug abuse is an epidemic, destroys the body step by step, each time as the years pass the person entered a degree of perdition where his body is completely addicted and very importantly, can avoid this disaster, help those who depend on this horrible threat.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Watching TV makes you smarter - Essay Example JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s argument in support of television programs with more intricate stories can actually have a greater level of intellectual benefits when compared to plainer shows because under the latter case, the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s brain does not explore potential outcomes of the story and the rationale behind such ideological constructs (170). Conversely, Johnson falls short of providing a convincing argument that places television viewing above other ways of gaining intellectual skills such as reading books. In fact, owing to the general spectator roles in television viewers, their inability to take charge of the unfolding events in the programs does not have any impact on their respective intelligence quotients (IQs). The viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ cognition is always expected to remain unchanged, irrespective of the content they are exposed to. By contrast, most people need some motivation to clear both psychological and physical fatigue inherent in human life, in an attempt to stimulate learning and cognitive development. In light of this, simple television programs with a higher level of predictability may have a higher degree of improving the IQ of the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Reconceptualizing Cultural Identity and Its Role in Intercultural Business Communication and The Business Case for Enterprise Mashups - Article Example According to the article, the cultural identity is an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-derived formal or informal membership in groups that inculcate knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, traditions, and ways of life. The article argues that a broad conception of cultural identity should not in any way privilege nationality, but rather balance the components of vacation, class, geography, philosophy, language, and biological aspects. Since cultural identity changes over time and that evokes emotions negotiable through communication, the article proposes the model of cultural identity that highlights components directly related to business, including economic class and professional affiliation. While such a model proves rather viable in eliminating all forms problems related to poor communication in the business, the reality can prove otherwise. Regardless of the policies or measures put in place to divert attention from such issues defining people in organization, the reality is ra ther opposite. Increasingly, people look at things in a different perspective. For instance, accepting that a person ever committed a mistake is rather odd, especially in organizations that use teams in accomplishing tasks and allocation of duties.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Sports and Energy Drink Market Essay Sports and Energy drink market is amazingly growing hence consumers and businessmen have started showing interests in this market. Energy drink market has increased because people are working almost 24 hours in a day just to make a livelihood, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to work hard without sleep, rest or energy source. This is one of the reason people made energy drinks as part of their life relying on energy from energy drinks, ultimately contributing to rising energy drinks market. Market players are concerned in improving their ingredients and contents for extra stamina to work without experiencing fatigue. Sports and Energy drinks entered the market with Striking names, attractive slogans, and expensive marketing campaigns and currently holding a significant portion of beverage industry. They are available everywhere, offered alongside soft drinks in vending machines, convenience stores, and grocery stores. Sports and Energy drinks are meant to supply mental and physical stimulation for a short period of time. Energy drinks are used by end users for a different of reasons such as to boost energy, reduce thirst, mix cocktails, flavoring smoothies. Energy drinks are located on adjacent shelves in stores to traditional sports drinks like Gatorade and Powerade reinforces such an assumption of optimistic relationship between their uses. Both sports and Energy drinks have managed to maintain their popularity during economic recession, in spite of their high and negative publicity due to caffeine content. Many end users are still prepared to pay the higher price due to their purposeful reimbursements. Sports and Energy drinks are forecasted to continue smash in the soft drink market Sports drinks provide carbohydrates and electrolytes. The carbohydrates supply the muscles with fuel during exercise. The main electrolyte is sodium, which improves the drive to drink and can assist with fluid replacement. Flavored drinks increase palatability and can assist with fluid consumption. The addition of protein may be beneficial to prevent muscle damage and may improve or maintain subsequent performance over consecutive days.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Boundaries of the I-Function in Twins Identical, conjoined, and half-twins are all examples of intrinsic variability in humans. Intrinsic variability exists in all animals and is an adaptive mechanism built into the nervous system in response to input. This mechanism allows humans to distinguish the same inputs as different from one another and therefore, the possible outputs vary with time. It is possible that due to identical genetic input, the twins could share identical neural pathways and identical I-Functions. This hypothesis could explain the identical behaviors and inter-connectedness of feelings and thoughts that twins share. Differences that are seen in twin behaviors could simply be due to intrinsic variability causing differing output or behaviors. During ovulation, when a woman releases an ovum, three different processes can occur. First, the ovum can remain in one piece all the way to the uterus where, if not fertilized, it will be shed out of the body along with the unused endometrium. Second, the ovum, if fertilized, can develop into a single embryo, which is the most common type of pregnancy in humans with about 99% of all births being singletons (1). Finally, the ovum can split into two separate halves resulting in genetically identical twins. The three types of twins previously mentioned are identical, which are created when the fertilized ovum separates into two complete, identical parts, conjoined, which occur as a result of a fertilized ovum not completing the equal separation resulting in two fetuses fused together in some way, and half-twins or polar body twins, which are made when an unfertilized ovum splits into two complete, identical parts and is then fertilized by two different sperm. The frequency of identical twins is 3.5 per 100 births (1) and the frequency of conjoined twins is 1 birth per 50,000 with only 100 known cases surviving their first year (5). There is no scientific explanation for why an ovum splits into two or more parts. It has been observed that ovum splitting can be hereditary but can also occur spontaneously. This spontaneity or unexplained divergence from normal egg growth and fertilization could be due to intrinsic variability. This intrinsic variability could also be connected to certain differences in behavior of two genetically and culturally identical twins. Ideally, one could say that twins with identical genetic information and environments would have extremely similar, if not the same neural pathways and central pattern generators (CPGs).
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
1.1 Explain 5 factors that can influence the wellbeing of children and young people. 1.Social Ã¢â¬â The social environment will influence the childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing Ã¢â¬â it can affect how a child is perceived by others, eg, if a child comes from a economically deprived area, people my think that they are unlikely to achieve, and refer to stereotypes rather than judge each child on their own merits 2.physical Ã¢â¬â If a child has a physical disability, they will require extra support to enable them to perform to their best potential, without it they may not develop their social skills, have fewer job opportunities and will ultimately affect their wellbeing. 3.Poor diet Ã¢â¬âa poor diet will affect a young person in many ways Ã¢â¬â a lack of a balanced diet will stop the child receiving essential vitamins and minerals required for a healthy lifestyle, it can also have a negative impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development. A poor diet involving too much food will affect the child just as much. Too much food, coupled with a lack of exercise, can lead to lots of medical issues EG, obesity, the onset of childhood diabetes etc. It may also affect the childÃ¢â¬â¢s social skills development and community involvement. 4. Lack of rest/Sleep Ã¢â¬â a lack of sleep, either through parental influences (neglect, abuse or simple poor parenting) or through choice (staying up late to watch TV, playing on video games etc) will have a huge influence on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing. 5.Lack of preventative health measures Ã¢â¬â This will affect the wellbeing of children. Not immunising against common, and potentially serious diseases and infections such as: measles, mumps, rubella or meningitis can cause veryÃ serious side effects and in extreme circumstances even death. 1.2 Why is it important to encourage resilience in children and young people? Building resilience in children and young people is very important as it helps gives them a way of coping with negative experiences and helps them to become independent, empathetic and responsible. Resilience in a child will help them to become confident, improve problem solving and the ability to deal with both their own emotions and those of others. 1.3 Using examples from your setting analyse effective ways of promoting wellbeing and resilience. We promote wellbeing and resilience in our setting by: Keeping them safe (secure environment, appropriate staff ratios, DBS checks on all staff etc) Listening to their opinions Ã¢â¬â residents meetings, key work sessions Involving them in decisions that affect them Ã¢â¬â Independent multi-agency reviews, key working sessions etc Encourage opportunities Ã¢â¬â offer physical activities, help with opportunities for developing hobbies and interests or group activities Involve parents where appropriate in planning Promote independence 1.4 Using examples from your setting describe ways of working with carers to promote wellbeing and resilience in children and young people. I work in a residential ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s home. As carers we promote the wellbeing of our service users by: Circulating pertinent information to colleagues to ensure a consistent approach happens Keeping them safe (secure environment, appropriate staff ratios, DBS checks on all staff etc) Listening to their opinions Ã¢â¬â residents meetings, key work sessions Involving them in decisions that affect them Ã¢â¬â Independent multi-agency reviews, key working sessions etc Encourage opportunities Ã¢â¬â offer physical activities, help with opportunities for developing hobbies and interests or group activities Involve parents where appropriate in planning Promote independence Ã¢â¬â cooking, cleaning, planning and budgeting skills 2.1 Explain why social and emotional identity are important to the wellbeing and resilience of children. Social and Emotional identity are important to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing and resilience as it helps children and young people to recognise and value their place in the family, the community and wider society by developing a sense of belonging and citizenship. It helps them to form positive relationships and feel emotionally secure by having a positive self image. Young people with a positive self image will have a greater disposition to learning. 2.2 Using 5 examples from your setting explain how you can support children and young people to identify with their own self-image and identity. 1.We ensure every child is represented in displays, posters and other materials 2.The children and young people are given the opportunity to dress in a way that reflects their own self image and individualism 3.We show recognition of respect for individuality of the child and plan activities accordingly 4.We also encourage the young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural and ethnic networks, and celebrate all cultures and ethnicities within the unit. 5.We also promote life story work, work as positive role models and encourage the same from visitors and visits to relevant establishments. 2.3 How do you encourage children and young people to recognise and value their own abilities, talents and achievements? I try and spend time with the young people i am assigned to work with to talkÃ about their thoughts and needs. This is either through 1-2-1 discussions or through activities. I will always try and encourage the young person to be open and honest, while being open and honest in return. I try and encourage focus on the positives Ã¢â¬â their strengths and achievements rather than weakness and failure. We celebrate success and progress and show that skills developed in one area can be transferred into another. 2.4 Using examples from your own practice describe how you support children and young people to be involved in decisions. We hold monthly residents meetings where all sorts of things are discussed, including trips and activities, rules and best practise, menus etc. I always encourage the young people to participate in these meetings and make their views heard. During Key worker sessions, we get the young people to Ã¢â¬Ëbuy inÃ¢â¬â¢ to plans by encouraging them to formulate the plans themselves, and agree a way in which these can be monitored. 2.5 Explain how goals and targets you have identified for individual children in your setting contribute towards building the self esteem of the child or young person. Completion of targets and reaching goals give children and young people a sense of achievement and success; has a positive impact on the self- Esteem and motivation of child or young person; goals should be challenging but realistic and achievable for child or young person. Setting realistic S.M.A.R.T targets at Valley View helps both with the young personÃ¢â¬â¢s self esteem and their behaviours, reducing the negative behaviours also has the knock on effect of helping with self esteem. 3.2 Explain how a solution focused approach will encourage children and young people to have a positive outlook on their lives. A solution focused approach gets a child or young person to look at how they would like to see their future. This focus allows a child or young person to look at what is going well for them, and identify the actions they need to take to continue on in way to achieve their preferred future. This will help the child and young people develop a sense of responsibility and will allow them to identify benefits of taking a positive approach to their life, and the choices they make, it will also allow them to identify the negative aspectsÃ in their life and give them the opportunity to change these for the better.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2071 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Philosophy Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? This essay shall discuss whether or not virtue ethics offers a convincing account of what it is to be morally right. It shall focus on Hursthouses version of virtue ethics, which shall be outlined first, and the positives of this argument: that it allows for different actions in different situations, and does not justify mass atrocities as a result. Four criticisms shall then be put against virtue ethics: that it is not action guiding; it does not explain cultural difference; it offers no guidance for virtue conflict; and that it relies on either a circularity or, at best, the argument being superfluous. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Does Virtue Ethics Offer a Convincing Account of what it is to be Right?" essay for you Create order With only one of these criticisms being answerable, it shall then be ultimately concluded that virtue ethics does not offer a convincing account of what it is to be right. Hursthouses argument of virtue ethics is an updated version of Aristotles original work. She claims that an action is right iff it is what a virtuous agent would characteristically do in the circumstances (Hursthouse, 1996: 646). Virtue ethics, then, makes an essential reference to the virtuous person, which Hursthouse claims is a person who acts virtuously Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ one who has and exercises the virtues (Hursthouse, 1996: 647). It is a trivial truth that a virtuous person does what is right, according to all moral theories. However, virtue ethics differs from other arguments in that it claims that an action is right in virtue of it being what the virtuous person would do. The concept of what is a virtue, then, must be established. In this, Hursthouse makes her claim to Aristotle, arguing that a virtue is a character trait a human being needs for eudaimonia, to flourish or live well (Hursthouse, 1996: 647). This links to Aristotles work The Nicomachean Ethics, in which he claims eudaimonia is living a flourishing, happy life, which he views as the ultimate end and goal of a persons life (Aristotle, 340bc). A virtue is any trait which will make an addition to this flourishing life, arguably termed the positive traits, such as kindness or charity. Here, virtue ethics demonstrates a shift from the deontic concepts of deontology and consequentialism; not claiming that an action ought or ought not to be done. Instead, there is a justification of actions in terms of areteic concepts; claiming that an action is kind or callous, for example. It can now be summarised what makes an action right according to virtue ethics. An action will be right iff it is what a virtuous agent would characteristically do in the circumstances. The virtuous agent would characteristically do the action i n the circumstances iff the trait which leads to the action is a virtue. Finally, the trait which leads to the action will be a virtue iff it would increase the eudaimonia of the agent. There are positive things to be said of Hursthouses argument for virtue ethics. Firstly, by stating an action is right iff it is what a virtuous agent would characteristically do in the circumstances, there is an allowance for variation in action dependent on the situation, which is more in line with our pragmatic moral practice. This escapes the rigidity and often counter-intuitive rules of deontology. Secondly, whilst it allows for variation in moral practice, it doesnt allow for the atrocities which consequentialism justifies as a consequence of its situational variation. This is because virtue ethics argument depends on what the virtuous person would do and, arguably, it would be said that the virtuous agent would not act in the way consequentialism argues for, by allowing mass murder or tortu re under certain extreme circumstances, for example. However, there are decisive criticisms against virtue ethics. The first criticism is that it does little to tell us exactly how to act; it is not action guiding. Virtue ethics states that we should act as the virtuous person would. This gives no other instruction than act virtuously, which perhaps can be further developed into act kindly or do not act callously. However, there is no further instruction than this, and nothing to say whether an action will be kind or just; a person is left to rely on their pre-understanding and belief. Hursthouses response to this criticism seems to be that this is all the instruction that we need. She argues: We can now see that [virtue ethics] comes up with a large number [of rules] Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ each virtue generate[s] a prescription Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" act honestly, charitably, justly. (Hursthouse, 1996: 648). When acting, we need only ask ourselves is this act just? or is this act kind?, and the response to the question, being either yes or no, will dictate whether or not an act should be done or not. This response to the objection does little to answer the original concern, and leads to the second criticism. Hursthouse claims that in order to determine whether an act is just, or kind, or deceitful, a person should seek out those who they consider to be their moral and virtuous superior, and ask their advice (Hursthouse, 1996: 647-648). Not only does this rely on a preconception in measurement of virtue (in that we must have an understanding of what is just in order that we may decide which acquaintance is most just), it does little to recognise what is a second criticism for virtue ethics: the variation in morality between cultures. There is a variation in virtues for different cultures in three senses. Firstly, cultures may vary on which virtue is to take precedence in cases of virtue conflict (though this is a separate criticism in itself). In the se cond sense, cultures vary in their conception of whether a trait is, indeed, a virtue. Thirdly, cultures vary on what they believe the action would be which the virtue leads to. MacIntyre writes: They [various thinkers and cultures] offer us different and incompatible lists of the virtues; they give a different rank order of importance to different virtues; and they have different and incompatible theories of the virtues. (MacIntyre, 2007: 181). He gives the example of Homer, who claimed that physical strength was a virtue. This, MacIntyre claims, would never be accepted as a virtue in modern society and, consequently, the difference in Homers idea of a virtue or an excellence is vastly different to that of ours (MacIntyre, 1981: 27). Though this demonstrates that one trait may be accepted as a virtue by one culture and not by another, it is also highlights the third sense of cultural difference: that different cultures can accept the same trait as a virtue, but what constitut es an act being virtuous may be varied. For example, all societies believe justice to be a virtue, yet one might consider capital punishment to be just and therefore virtuous, whilst the other may hold capital punishment to be unjust and therefore not virtuous. To the defence of virtue ethics, Hursthouse claims that the problem is one which is equally shared by deontology, arguing: Each theory has to stick out its neck and say, in some cases this person/these people/other cultures are in error, and find some grounds for saying this. (Hursthouse, 1991: 229) Yet this causes concern for virtue theory. Hursthouse is here claiming that some cultures are wrong in believing that certain traits truly lead to an increase in eudaimonia, and are therefore wrong about them being virtues. This presents a circularity in reasoning for virtue ethics. Before the circularity criticism is discussed, a defence can be made of one aspect of conflict: when two virtues are in conflict, not acro ss cultures, but with one another in a situation. The third criticism is that situations are easily imagined in which two virtues can be in conflict in this manner. For instance, a police officer may apprehend a robber. On hearing the robbers story, it turns out that he stole food in order to provide for his starving children. The police officer must then decide whether to act on the virtue of justice, and arrest the robber who, despite the circumstances, has committed a crime, or to act on the virtue of sympathy and charity, and allow the robber to take the food and feed the starving children. Hursthouse claims that in such cases, virtue ethics has nothing helpful to say (Hursthouse, 1991: 229). However, a response can be contested. The degree of conflict can be very broad, dependent on the circumstances. In some situations, the correct answer is obvious; in the above case, it would be hard to justify not allowing a man a stolen loaf of bread to feed his starving children. In ot her situations, the degree of conflict can be much narrower, making the decision much more difficult. In keeping with the argument of virtue ethics, the correct decision is going to be the one which adds to eudaimonia. If both traits will lead to an increase in eudaimonia, the correct choice will be the one which adds most to eudaimonia. As the difference in the amount of increase narrows, the choice becomes harder, but the moral recompense in choosing wrongly will be less. Ultimately, if both virtues will increase eudaimonia equally, then they are equally the correct choice. However, the most decisive criticism is that the argument which virtue ethics puts forward for what is morally right rests on a circularity. This is brought forward when it was demonstrated that virtue ethics necessitates the existence of some other criterion being the case in order that it can be said some cultures are right and others wrong in their approach to the implementation of virtues and what it is that they hold to be a virtue. If virtue ethics is to explain why some cultures are wrong in their implementation of the virtues, then their argument must work as follows: a culture is wrong because what they are advocating as right would not be done by the virtuous person. It would not be done by the virtuous person because the trait which leads to the action is not a virtue. The trait which leads to the action is not a virtue because it would not add to the persons eudaimonia. The reason, then, that a culture is wrong, is because they are mistaken in assuming that the trait which would lead to the action is a virtue, because it will not add to the persons eudaimonia. It must therefore be considered what it takes for a trait to lead to an increase in eudaimonia. To this end, it must be claimed that a trait can only add to eudaimonia, and therefore be a virtue, because of something about the trait: if it is morally right. Herein is the circularity. Virtue ethics states that an action is right iff it is what the virtuous person would characteristically do in the situation. However, it has already been shown that there must be something about a trait which is morally right in order that it can add to eudaimonia and therefore be a virtue, so that the virtuous person may act on it. To avoid the circularity, for a trait to be morally right, there must be a criterion of rightness other than it is what the virtuous person would characteristically do in the situation. If such a criterion exists, virtue ethics argument becomes superfluous to explain what is right. In conclusion, the argument for virtue ethics account of what it is for an action to be right has been set forward. Firstly, the positives to this argument were shown: that it avoids the rigidity of deontology and the atrocities of consequentialism. It was then criticised with four arguments: it is not action guiding; the difference in cultures morality; concerns when two or more virtues come into co nflict; and the necessity for another criterion of rightness which, if accepted, renders virtue ethics unnecessary or, if rejected, leads to a circularity in virtue ethics. Therefore, it is concluded that virtue ethics does not offer a convincing account of what it is for an action to be right. Reference List Aristotle. (340bc). The Nichomachean Ethics. Translated by Ross, D. Edited by Brown, L. (2009). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hursthouse, R. (1991). Virtue Theory and Abortion. In Philosophy and Public Affairs. Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 223-246. Hursthouse, R. (1996). Normative Virtue Ethics. In Ethical Theory: An Anthology. Edited by Shafer-Landau, R. (2013). Chichester: John Wiley Sons, pp. 645-652. MacIntyre, A. (1981). The Nature of the Virtues. In The Hastings Centre Report. Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 27-34. MacIntyre, A. (2007). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. 3rd edition. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.